Understanding Web Coding Protocols

Websites – along with the internet – are ever evolving. Evolving, meaning they have gained rules and structure. “Rules” I will talk about later, however structure is set into place by HTML and XHTML.


HTML is an abbreviation of “Hyper Text Markup Language” and is a computer language that can be human-read and allows for website creation. The ‘Hyper Text’ refers to the method in which the user will move around the internet; by clicking on hyperlinks.  ‘Markup’ is what the HTML tags do to the text  inside of them.

A simple example would be: <title>Understanding Web Coding Protocols</title> which would enable a “title” onto the page. There needs to be a tag at the beginning for it to work and on the end, however the end tag must be closed off (</example>) otherwise the tag is useless.


XHTML refers to Extensible Hyper Text Markup Language and it is almost exactly the same as HTML though it is stricter and identified by an XML application.

XML applications is software that can and will process/ manipulate date using its own technologies, in order to allow XHTML to run on different devices.

Cascading style sheets

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) handles style and will present HTML and XHTML, such as design or layout and will also help with variations in display sizes or coding on different devices entirely.

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) created CSS to solve the long process of developing a website were attributes had to be added to every single page.

Screen Shot 2016-05-10 at 14.36.37

Above is some code I wrote for the CSS (to read a bit more on that, click here).


Metadata is a description of content; characteristics of data, or more literally, data about data. It eases the users’ understanding fro information stored ad has become quite important XML-based Web Applications.

It supports the location, comprehension and management of data and information/ There are varieties of metadata, such as it’s description, administration or structural properties can change


Adobe Flash is a authoring software for the interactive side of the web and allows you to create HTML though it is also used graphically for animations, in Web browser games and applications, as well as supporting Web videos.

However it was made and mainly used in the PC era and is a very closed and proprietary software, with new and more inclusive authoring software being used that doesn’t have so many drawbacks, such as:

  • It was made for PCs and although it now works for mobile devices, there are still flaws.
  • Poor security, with Symantec saying that Flash was one of the worst security records in 2009.
  • It is out of touch with new devices on the market and is not keeping up with its competitors.



JavaScript is a programming language for HTML and the web with all modern browsers now supporting ECMAScript, the standard for JavaScript. It is, however, not to be confused with Java which is a completely different computer language.

JavaScript is designed for dynamic tasks (while HTML is for defining static webpages) .

Website Development

“Web 1.0”, “Web 2.0” and “Web 3.0” all refer to the development and changes in the internet, and websites in particular.

| Web 1.0 | 


Web 1.0 which is seen as the first stage of the World Wide Web and is typically characterised by:

  • Static pages: which are filled with content and coded with HTML and would display the same content to every visitor no matter the device.
  • Not interactive: it is not an open-source website and is inside flat.
  • No set protocol for design: common web pages at the time were usually cluttered, filled with multiple colours and fronts with no sort of layout and clipart.

The “readable” phrase of the internet.

| Web 2.0 | 


Web 2.0 develops with foundations set with Ajax, RSS and Eclipse (all of which are IDE software). It is seen as dynamic  and is characterised by:

  • User interaction: users’ are able to update online content e.g. Wikipedia
  • Social networking: sites like MSN and MySpace had customisable profiles and enabled users’ to message other users.
  • Web based applications: applications make it possible for users’ to run programs in the web browser when before they would have to download it.

The “editable” phrase.

| Web 3.0 |

Web 3.0 was coined by John Markoff however it is not accepted by everyone, many thinking that there was no need for another term. It is characterised by:

  • Semantic web: the semantic web is an extension of the web and promotes date formats/ exchange protocols.
  • Connectivity: improved wireless internet/ doubled broadband speeds and mobile devices able to connect to Wi-Fi.
  • Metaverse (“beyond the universe”): the web is no about to generate 3D images.

The “executable” stage of the internet.


Static V Dynamic

Web 1.0

Web 2.02

Web 3.0

Web 1.0 + 2.0 + 3.0

Semantic Web



Adobe Flash2



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