Legal and Ethical


Blasphemy Law

The blasphemy law is to limit the freedom of speech in regards to religion. This can been inclusive to persons, artefacts , beliefs etc.  The Blasphemy law is no longer in affect in the UK though it is active in other countries some of which do punish this “crime” from serving prison time to a death sentence.

The argument to the blasphemy law is that it stifles our freedom of speech of other beliefs outside of those set by the government, as this law can be used as an excuse to punish Atheists or those of a different religion outside of what may be the “main” religion of the country.

Hate Crime Law

Hate crime is an incident where the victim or any other people think that the assailant was motivated through prejudices. This can include race, religion, age, sexual origination, disabilities or any other perceived “differences”.

The hate crime law is there to protect against bigoted behaviour against minorities. What could be considered a minor crime like assault can be probably punished if the court should rule that it was motivated by prejudice.

Breach of Confidence

Breach of confidence is a law that protects people from sharing information that has been given in ‘confidence’. However breach of confidence is concerned only with the restriction of the circulation of commercially viable information. This can include trade secrets, private information, governmental documentation etc.

The media will often argue public interest for the released of confidential information. The most extreme case being the WikiLeaks in America.

Contempt of Court

Contempt of court was “an act or omission calculated to interfere with the administration of justice”. There are a number of acts for this law such as: taking photos, portraits/ sketches on any proceedings before the court. Refusing to be sworn in, give evidence or produce documentation. Taking any sort of recording equipment  into without permission. Also acting in a behaviour unfitting for court which can include being disrespectful, damaging property, acting in a violent manner/ attacking someone, vulgar use of language etc.

A lot of the acts for contempt of court is trying to protect proceedings of its cases. The judge of public opinion can often affect outcomes with the jury which is why they are so strict when it comes to the media. The others is really for litigants and defendants or even members of the gallery.


Copyright is a registration which is to protect a creator’s work from infringement and/ or misuse. It will stop third parties from outrightly stealing or copying this copyrighted material.

Data Protection

Data protection includes aspects of CCTV, employment and data sharing. It is around to regulate personal data meaning


Discrimination is similar to hate crime where there is prejudice with age, sex, sexual orientation, gender, race, disabilities etc. With the difference is that it is not always against the law.

Direct discrimination is when a person is treated differently or less favourably than someone else than for no reason that they fall into one of the above categories by another person. It is an act. Indirection discrimination is where there is practice or policies that are against minorities.


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